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潘霍华(朋霍费尔)是基督徒吗?(陈鸽)

首先,我们要申明,本文不是对潘霍华个人的品德或人身的攻击,而是纯粹探讨他的信仰问题。

潘霍华(Dietrich Bonhoeffer,又译朋霍费尔,1906 1945年)是德国信义宗的牧师,是世俗化神学(注16)的鼻祖与先锋,他极其关注现实的社会与政治问题,后因反纳粹党与谋杀希特勒未遂而被捕,并于二次大战结束前一个月被绞死。

因此,潘霍华成了德国的民族英雄教会的良知,更成了世界基督教各宗派所公认的以身殉职、抗拒时弊的英勇典范。他所遗留的许多神学著作与文献,给今天的教会(不论东方或西方)都带来了不可磨灭影响。   

2005年,「中信月刊」曾发表一篇标题为「狂輪下的殉道者」的文章,最后总结:潘霍華不應該只是二十世紀的殉道者,更應該是廿一世紀的先知。http://www.twccm.org.tw/CCM_Mag/200504/11.htm

2006年,潘霍華百周年誕辰,(香港)各地舉辦紀念活動,透過這位先贤的信仰遺產,再思委身基督的信仰如何落實於公共空間。39歲的一生,他的神學、屬靈生命與社會行動,影響後世深遠。他留下豐富的信仰遺產,諸如《聖徒相通》、《行動與存在》,以及被稱為三部曲的《追隨基督》、《團契生活》和《倫理學》等,這些關於基督信仰的著作不僅影響了當時社會對信仰的看法,而且將會繼續影響那些對抗趨勢潮流的二十一世紀基督徒(基督日报:http://www.gospelherald.com.hk/news/min_819.htm)。

 “為紀念廿世紀著名神學家、牧師、殉道者潘霍華百年誕辰,(香港)中原大學宗教研究所特舉辦國際學術研討會,並計劃在會上成立漢語地區「潘霍華學會」。此外,宗教研究所亦與校園福音團契及出版社合作「潘霍華經典著作導讀」、「校園雜誌論潘霍華專刊」、「校園出版社出版潘霍華著作」及「潘霍華圖片和說明巡迴展」等活動。”(http://www.gospelherald.com.tw/template/news_view.htm?code=min&id=800

香港教會更新運動和基道出版社更舉辦一場「潘霍華百周年誕辰紀念講座」,題為「基督進入世界」,講解潘霍華的社會倫理。

 「第一屆周年牧養研討會」上,不少來自各神學院及機構的講師及同工進行了分題討論,約140教牧同工參加。香港浸信會神學院的鄧紹光博士,以德國著名神學家潘霍華的教會論來探討「教牧職事」。(http://home.netvigator.com/~pakkinl2/theo004.htm

 2006年,以中国家庭教会成员身份,受美国总统布实接见的中国作家余杰,也非常佩服潘氏(注17),他说:我最早读到的潘霍华和C. S.路益师的著作,都是雅歌出版的。对我来说,那真是终身难忘的、极具震撼性的阅读体验。可以说,没有这两位大师的带领,我成为基督徒的道路不会如此顺畅……http://www.chinainperspective.org/ArtShow.aspx?AID=2508

王怡的文章中也常正面地引用潘霍华的话语。

可见,潘霍华虽然死了……仍旧说话(来114),并且声音洪亮,至今仍回荡不止。然而,他是否因着信说话呢?这是我们要探讨的焦点。

根据潘霍华所写的十四本书与文献,我们总结了以下十二点:

(参考:http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/exposes/bonhoeffer/general.htm)

1.潘霍华说:神教导我们:人类不需要他也可以活得很好。那与我们同在的神就是那离弃我们的神。潘霍华更相信这位至高、绝对、全能、良善的上帝只不过是一种虚假超然的概念罢了。(注1

2.潘氏相信人类已经成熟了,不再需要宗教信仰了。(注2

3.潘氏拒绝讨论基督的起源、他与父神的关系、他的神人二性、等等。潘霍华坚持这些都不是客观的真理,更不是我们可能知道的。(注3

4.潘氏怀疑、甚至否定童女生子。(注4

5.潘氏否定基督的神性;他提倡今天的耶稣基督不是有位格的,乃是一个集体的同在。(注5

6.潘氏否定基督人性的无罪,更对基督在世上的行动提出质疑。(注6

7.潘氏相信基督教不是排它的,换言之,他认为基督不是独一的通天之路。(注8

8.潘氏是个实用进化论者,他认为创世记里充满了神化,从科学的角度看是很无知的。(注10

9. 潘氏持守「新正统派」神学(即使用纯正的圣经救恩词汇,但心底却存着不信的恶心。注11)。参考:谨防巴特神学(新正统派)异端对教会的毒害”http://larryltpan.blog.sohu.com/135387751.html

10.潘氏认为旧约圣经没有多大价值。他说:旧约的信仰是个没有救赎的宗教。(注12

11.潘氏不相信圣经是上帝所默示的绝对无误的话语。(注13

12.潘氏不相信基督肉身的复活。他认为复活的历史性是在模糊的领域里,更是基督教信仰的神化成分。他更说:相信复活不能解决死亡的问题。还有神迹奇事、基督升天都是神化的概念而已。(注14

 最后,以 Dr.G. Archer Weniger 的话总结是最恰当不过的了:如果在垃圾箱中可以找到可吃的食品,那么你也可能从潘霍华身上获益。然而,如果垃圾箱中的东西太危险了,那么我们也当完全拒绝潘霍华的、那比垃圾更糟糕的亵渎。(注15

 既然潘霍华是一位不信神的神学家,不信复活的殉道者,与不信圣经的牧师;我不明白,为什么今日教会(尤其华人)对他依然如此痴迷呢?(陈鸽 4-27-2010

  1(TE>Letters andPapers from Prison,TE> S.C.M. Press edition, Great Britain: Fontana Books,1953, pp. 122, 164, 360). He believed that “God is teaching us that wemust live as men who can get along very well without Him. The God who is withus is the God who forsakes us.” Bonhoeffer also believed that the conceptof God as a “supreme Being, absolute in power and goodness,” was a”spurious conception of transcendence,” and that “God as aworking hypothesis in morals, politics, and science … should be dropped, oras far as possible eliminated”

2 Hebelieved that mankind had become of age and no longer needed religion, whichwas only a deceptive garment of true faith; he suggested the need for a”religionless Christianity.” To Bonhoeffer, “the Christian isidentified not by his beliefs, but by actions, by his participation in thesuffering of God in the life of the world” (TE>Letters and Papersfrom Prison,TE> S.C.M. Press edition, Great Britain: Fontana Books, 1953, p.163). Thus, Bonhoeffer’s final writings have given impulse to Marxisttheologians sponsoring “liberation theology” and to others wishing topromote a worldly social gospel.

 3 Herefused to discuss the origin of Christ, His relationship to the Father, Histwo natures, or even the relationship of the two natures. Bonhoeffer wasadamant in his belief that it was impossible to know the objective truth aboutthe real essence of Christ’s being-nature (TE>Christ the Center,TE>pp. 30, 88, 100-101).

4Hequestioned the Virgin Birth, and in reality denied itTE> TE>(TE>TheCost of Discipleship,TE> p. 215).

5Hedenied the deity of Christ; he advocated that “Jesus Christ Today” isnot a real person and being, but a “corporate presence” (TE>Testimonyto Freedom,TE> pp. 75-76;TE>Christ the Center,TE> p. 58).

6Hedenied the sinlessness of Christ’s human nature and further questioned thesinlessness of His earthly behavior (TE>Christ the Center,TE>pp. 108-109).

7.He believed that Christ exists in three “revelatory forms” –TE>asTE>Word, as sacrament, and as church. From asserting that Christ isthe church, he followed that all persons in the church are identicalwith Christ (TE>Christ the Center,TE> p. 58;TE>The Cost ofDiscipleship,TE> p. 217). This amounts to pantheism!

8He believedthat Christianity is not exclusive, i.e., that Christ is not the only wayto God (TE>Testimony to Freedom,TE> pp. 55-56).

 9.He was a prominent figure in the early ecumenical movement, as evidencedthrough his associations with the “World Alliance for InternationalFriendship” (a forerunner of the apostate World Council of Churches[WCC]), Union Theological Seminary, and Visser ‘t Hooft (who later became thefirst General Secretary of the WCC) (TE>Testimony to Freedom,TE> pp.22, 212, 568). Bonhoeffer also reached out to Roman Catholics, prefiguring thebroader ecumenism that blossomed after Vatican II in the mid-1960s.

10He wasa practical evolutionist (TE>No Rusty Swords,TE> p. 143), andbelieved that the book of Genesis was scientifically naive and full of myths (TE>Creationand Fall: A Theological Interpretation of Genesis 1-3TE>).

 11Headhered to neo-orthodox theology and terminology concerning salvation (TE>Testimonyto Freedom,TE> p. 130), was a sacramentalist (TE>Life Together,TE>p. 122;TE>The Way to Freedom,TE> pp. 115, 153), believed inregenerational infant baptism (TE>Letters and Papers from Prison,TE>Macmillan, pp. 142-143) as well as adult baptismal regeneration (TE>TheWay to Freedom,TE> p. 151), equated church membership with salvation (TE>TheWay to Freedom,TE> p. 93), and denied a personal/individualistic salvation (TE>Lettersand Papers from Prison,TE> Macmillan, p. 156).

12Heplaced little or no value on the Old Testament –“… the faith of the OldTestament is not a religion of salvation” (TE>Letters and Papersfrom Prison,TE> S.C.M. Press edition, Great Britain: Fontana Books, 1953, p.112).

13Hedenied the verbal-plenary inspiration of Scripture, believing that the Biblewas only a “witness” to the Word of God and becomes the Word ofGod only when it “speaks” to an individual; otherwise, it wassimply the word of man/men (TE>Testimony to Freedom,TE> pp. 9, 104;TE>SanctorumCommunio,TE> p. 161). To Bonhoeffer, the Bible was meant “to beexpounded as a witness, not as a book of wisdom, a teaching book, a book ofeternal truth” (TE>No Rusty Swords,TE> p. 118). He also believedin the value of higher criticism/historical criticism, which is a denial of theinerrancy and authenticity of the Bible (TE>Christ the Center,TE> pp.73-74).

14He hadno faith in the physical resurrection of Christ. Bonhoeffer believed the”historicity” of the Resurrection was in “the realm ofambiguity,” and that it was one of the “mythological”elements of Christianity that “must be interpreted in such a way as not tomake religion a pre-condition of faith.” He also believed that”Belief in the Resurrection is not the solution of the problem ofdeath,” and that such things as miracles and the ascension of Christ were”mythological conceptions” as well (TE>Christ theCenter,TE> p. 112;TE>Letters and Papers from Prison,TE> S.C.M.Press edition, Great Britain: Fontana Books, 1953, pp. 93-94, 110).

 15Dr. G.Archer Weniger declared, “If there is wholesome food in a garbage can,then one can find some good things in Bonhoeffer, but if it be dangerousto expect to find nourishment in a garbage can, then Bonhoeffer must be totallyrejected and repudiated as blasphemy. It is worse than garbage” (TE>FBFInformation Bulletin,TE> May 1977, p. 12).

 注16:世俗化与世俗化神学(选自赵中辉主编的《英汉神学名词辞典》)

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5fe30acb0100hj15.html?retcode=0

17:我仅论及余杰对潘霍华的推崇,并没有论断余内心的信仰。有时真诚却不知内情的信徒,也可能被新正统派误导(如:John MacArthur 也曾正面的推荐潘霍华;还有许多人对巴特 Barth 的推崇)。

请参考:A、论断与判断。视频:http://www.51yongsheng.cn/video.php/vid_735.htm

讲稿:http://media.sermonaudio.com/mediapdf/1014081457466.pdf

B、何谓基督徒。视频:http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=418101057106

讲稿:http://media.sermonaudio.com/mediapdf/418101057106.pdf

 181933年,在【基督论】的讲道中,潘霍华说:在童女生子上,圣经的见证是不清楚的。潘霍华也否定圣经默示的无误,在他写的作门徒的代价一书的注脚中,他提醒读者:不要把经上关于基督复活的陈述看为是实存的(ontological statements)就是实实在在发生在时空当中的历史事实。潘霍华也全然否定护教学(apologetics)的价值,认为护教是荒唐的。

In“his Christology lectures in 1933 Bonhoeffer claimed, “The biblicalwitness is uncertain with regard to the virgin birth.” Bonhoeffer alsorejected the notion of the verbal inspiration of scripture, and in a footnoteto Cost of Discipleship he warned against viewing statements about Christ’sresurrection as ontological statements (i.e., statements about something thathappened in real space and time). Bonhoeffer also rejected the entireenterprise of apologetics, which he thought was misguided.”Metaxas’sCounterfeit Bonhoeffer: An Evangelical Critique https://www.csustan.edu/history/metaxass-counterfeit-bonhoeffer

 范泰尔(改革宗神学家)对潘霍华的一点反思(陈鸽翻译)

关于作者: 陈鸽

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