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定罪的知识(麦克阿瑟)9-17-2018 陈鸽翻译

“自然神学”(即相信人类有与生俱来的本能,凭靠自己的理性就可以认识神)已在福音派中大行其道,广受欢迎。然而,它有圣经的根据吗?

 当头一棒(A Knock On The Head

 在罗马书第一章,保罗对“自然神学”提出了有力的反驳。没错,神藉着所造之物启示了自己。他也藉着我们的良知,即他写在我们心版上的道德法则来揭示他自己(罗2:15)。然而,这些知识都不足以拯救人类。罗马书1:18说:“原来,神的忿怒从天上显明在一切不虔不义的人身上,就是那些行不义阻挡真理的人。”在天然光景中的罪人,是死在过犯罪恶中的(弗2:1)。死就是死了,他不能回应。他是失落的、无知的、盲目的,他对福音的荣光完全视而不见、无动于衷。

 道德无能Moral Inability

 因此,罪人就算凭着自己推理的能力,得出结论:有一位大能的立法者上帝的存在,也知道上帝为人类设立了道德的规范,即便如此,罪人又有何能何德来回应这个真理呢?难道他有天然的本能,从这个起点达到救恩的终点吗?不可能,保罗告诉我们,不信的人本能地压抑真理,不义地阻挡真理,因为,他的本性是邪恶的,压根儿是败坏的,他心中充满罪恶,没有能力行出任何真正的公义来。

 保罗继续说:

 神的事情,人所能知道的,原显明在人心里,因为神已经给他们显明。自从造天地以来神的永能和神性是明明可知的,虽是眼不能见,但藉著所造之物就可以晓得……”(罗1:19-20 

 责无旁贷Inexcusable Responsibility

 为什么?好叫罪人可以生发出自救的能力吗?不,保罗说,乃是“叫人无可推诿”(罗1:20)。神在创造中的自我启示,不足以拯救罪人,只能够诅咒罪人,叫他们罪疚难逃。

 “因为,他们虽然知道神,却不当作神荣耀他,也不感谢他。他们的思念变为虚妄,无知的心就昏暗了。(罗1:21)在人的良心和理性的摸索过程中,无论他发现了什么微弱的亮光,它很快又昏暗了,罪人会自己把它泯灭掉。 

 全然败坏Total Depravity

 这个真理是整本圣经对救恩理解的核心,也是福音的根基:即罪人凭靠自己完全不愿,也不能相信真理。这也许是整本圣经中最重要的教义,因为一错百错。你若在这一点上搞错,接下来你会步步都错。

 人们往往在救恩中神主权(Sovereignty of God)的问题上卡住,然而,除非你先明白了人类罪孽之深重,你就不可能测透上帝救恩之宽广。唯有这样,你才能清楚明白:罪人得救唯一的指望和途径就是神,是神从根本上救赎并改造人,叫他出死入生,得着生命,否则罪人就无可救药。

 主权救恩Sovereign Salvation

 若没有神主动介入的行动,罪人唯一的本能就是羞辱神,因他心中充满了属灵的昏暗,他的思念只能变得越来越虚妄,也越加地反叛神、抵挡神。保罗说:他们“自称为聪明,反成了愚拙,将不能朽坏之神的荣耀变为偶像,彷佛必朽坏的人和飞禽、走兽、昆虫的样式。”(罗1:22-23

 神所造的天地万物彰显了他的属性,在他所创造的世界中,他植入了自己的见证,并将之编织到人类精妙的结构中。然而,罪人唯一能做的就是拒绝它、扭曲它、无视它。在这黑暗笼罩的世界里,神性的存在及大自然的证据有如微弱、闪烁的火焰,尽管如此,罪人仍竭力地想要把它吹熄掉、泯灭掉,因此,他们责无旁贷,罪有应得。

 恶性循环Vicious Circle Of Sin

 接着在(罗1)下半的经文中,保罗描述罪人对上帝的弃绝,如何导致了他彻底的堕落与败坏。这是我们反复看见发生在我们周遭的世界中、一条可怕的下坡路。这就是人类历史的真实故事:一个周而复始、原地打转、徒劳无功、令人厌烦的恶性循环,人变得越来越堕落、败坏,直到完全毁灭为止。

 在《知识分子》一书中,作者约翰逊(Paul Johnson)分享了一系列人物的传记,包括罗素(Rousseau)康德(Kant)和其他塑造西方文明伟大的思想家。发人深省的是,不仅他们的智慧卓越、才华横溢,而且他们的生活腐败、道德沦丧。无可否认,他们聪明绝顶,但即便如此,也无法挽救他们脱离(罗1)堕落的悲剧。

 自然规律Natural Tendency

 到底“自然神学”最终把我们带到哪里去呢?保罗说它会导致我们:“装满了各样不义、邪恶贪婪恶毒(或作:阴毒)满心是嫉妒凶杀争竞、诡诈、毒恨;又是谗毁的、背後说人的怨恨神的(或作:被神所憎恶的)、侮慢人的、狂傲的、自夸的、捏造恶事的、违背父母的。无知的,背约的,无亲情的,不怜悯人的。他们虽知道神判定行这样事的人是当死的,然而他们不但自己去行,还喜欢别人去行。 (罗 1:29-32

 没悔改的人,不但不能凭靠自己找到神,他反而会拥护一切神所反对的事,并且成为众叛徒的拉拉队长。


 (改编自好消息)

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原文如下:

Knowledge That Condemns

 by John MacArthur

Monday, September 17, 2018

 “Naturaltheology”—the belief that man inherently has the ability to reason himself toGod—is surging in popularity among evangelicals. But does it find support in Scripture?

In Romans 1, Paul presents a strong case against the ideaof natural theology. It is true that God reveals Himself in creation. Hereveals Himself also in our consciences, through the moral law He has writtenon the human heart (Romans 2:15). But that knowledge is not enough to save. Romans 1:18says, “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness andunrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness.” The sinner,in his natural condition, is dead in trespasses and sins (Ephesians 2:1),and dead means dead—he can’t respond. He is lost, ignorant, and utterly blindto the glorious light of the gospel.

 So even if the sinner, through nothing but his own powersof deduction, concludes there is a powerful, law-giving God who has establishedthe standard for morality, what can the sinner do with that truth? Does heinnately have the capability to move from that to salvation? No, Paul tells usthat the response of the unbelieving heart is to suppress the truth. Hesuppresses it in unrighteousness because he is, at his core, wicked, corrupt,sinful, and incapable of any true righteousness.

 Paul continues,

 Because that which is known about God is evident withinthem; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world Hisinvisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearlyseen, being understood through what has been made. (Romans1:19–20)

 Why? So sinners can conjure their own salvation? No! Paul says, “So that they are without excuse” (Romans 1:20).God’s self-revelation through His creation is not enough to save sinners—it’sonly enough to damn them.   

 And “even though they knew God, they did not honor Him asGod or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and theirfoolish heart was darkened” (Romans 1:21).Whatever faint glimmer of light a person might find on the path of reason and conscience quickly goes dark—actually, the sinner snuffs it out himself.

 That truth is at the heart of the whole biblicalunderstanding of salvation. This fact lies at the foundation of the gospel: Thesinner is utterly unable and unwilling to believe the truth by himself. Thismight be the most important doctrine in all of Scripture, because if you get itwrong, you’re going to be wrong about everything that follows.

 People frequently get hung up on the sovereignty of Godin salvation. But you can’t hope to fathom God’s work in salvation withoutfirst understanding the sinfulness of humanity. Only then is it clear that theonly way a sinner can ever be saved is if God radically redeems and transformshim, giving life to the dead.

 Apart from that intervening divine act, sinners’ onlyinstinct is to dishonor God. Spiritual darkness reigns in their hearts, andtheir thinking only becomes more futile and more bent against God. Paul says,“Professing to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of theincorruptible God for an image” (Romans1:22–23).

 God’s creation speaks to His character. He has plantedtestimony of Himself in the created world, and woven it into the fabric ofhumanity. But the only thing sinful man can do is reject it, pervert it, andignore it. The evidence of God’s existence and nature may only amount to afaint, flickering flame in a world dominated by darkness, but sinners are alltoo eager to blow it out just the same. And for that reason, they standjustifiably condemned.

 In the subsequent verses, Paul describes how the sinner’srejection of God leads to his utter degradation and corruption. It’s a wickedand perverse descent—one we routinely see in the world around us. It’s reallythe story of human history, repeated over and over in a futile, repulsive cycleof depraved destruction. In The Intellectuals, author Paul Johnson shares aseries of stories about individuals including Rousseau, Kant, and other greatthinkers who helped shape Western culture. What strikes you is not just theirbrilliance, but how perverse and deviant their lives were. Their intelligenceis undeniable, but it couldn’t save them from the disastrous degradation ofRomans 1.

 What does natural theology ultimately get us? Paul saysit leads to

 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed,evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips,slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil,disobedient to parents, without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving,unmerciful; and although they know the ordinance of God, that those whopractice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but alsogive hearty approval to those who practice them. (Romans1:29-32)

 Far from finding God on his own, the unrepentant manbecomes a champion and a cheerleader for everything the Lord opposes.


 (Adapted from Good News)

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